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1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica

1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica
1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica
1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica
1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica
1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica
1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica

1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica   1967 Psalms Book Jerusalem Liberation Six Day War Granted To Idf Soldier Judaica

1967 PSALMS BOOK JERUSALEM LIBERATION SIX DAY WAR GRANTED TO IDF SOLDIER. For sale, an extremely rare unique Psalms book that was granted by the religious council of Jerusalem to IDF soldiers at the Day of Jerusalem Liberation.

From the label attached the Psalms it's read: "Gift by the Religious Council Jerusalem, For the Great Day of the Liberation of the City of David King of Israel". I will defend this city and rescue it for My sake and for the sake of My servant David. " dated Kaf"Heit Iyar (June 7, 1967) the date of Reunited of Jerusalem!! A blue stamp of IDF Military P. Unit 2679 is stamped on the right side of the opening page. This psalms book is in good condition. Size: 3.75x2.75 inch. Please have a look at my other listings.

Located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions-Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE.

In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters-known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond its boundaries. According to the Biblical tradition, King David established the city as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the Ist Millenium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish People. The sobriquet of holy city??? Transliterated'ir haqodesh was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times.

The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.

In Islamic tradition in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (Salah), and Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi), the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it.

Currently, Israel's Basic Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's "undivided capital". The international community has rejected the latter annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israe The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, 208,000 Palestinians live in East Jerusalem, which is sought by the Palestinian Authority as the capital of Palestine. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister and President, and the Supreme Court. Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.

The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo has ranked consistently as Israel's top tourist attraction for Israelis Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design is Israel's national school of art, founded in 1906 by Boris Schatz. It is named for the Biblical figure Bezalel, son of Uri Hebrew:??????????

, who was appointed by Moses to oversee the design and construction of the Tabernacle (Exodus 35:30). The Bezalel School was founded in 1906 by Boris Schatz. Theodor Herzl and the early Zionists believed in the creation of a national style of art blending classical Jewish/Middle Eastern and European traditions. The teachers of Bezalel developed a distinctive school of art, known as the Bezalel school, which portrayed Biblical and Zionist subjects in a style influenced by the European jugendstil (art nouveau) and traditional Persian and Syrian art.

The artists blended "varied strands of surroundings, tradition and innovation, " in paintings and craft objects that invokes "biblical themes, Islamic design and European traditions, " in their effort to "carve out a distinctive style of Jewish art" for the new nation they intended to build in the ancient Jewish homeland. The Bezalel School produced decorative art objects in a wide range of media: silver, leather, wood, brass and fabric.

While the artists and designers were Western-trained, the craftsmen were often members of the Yemenite Jewish community, which has a long tradition of working in precious metals. Silver and goldsmithing had been traditional Jewish occupations in Yemen. Yemenite immigrants were also frequent subjects of Bezalel school artists. Leading artists of the school include Meir Gur Aryeh, Ze'ev Raban, Shmuel Ben David, Ya'ackov Ben-Dov, Ze'ev Ben-Tzvi, Jacob Eisenberg, Jacob Pins, Jacob Steinhardt, and Hermann Struck In 1912, the school had only one female student, Marousia (Miriam) Nissenholtz, who used the pseudonym Chad Gadya.

The school closed down in 1929 in the wake of economic difficulties, but reopened in 1935, attracting many teachers and students from Germany, many of them from the Bauhaus school shut down by the Nazis. Raban was born Wolf Rawicki in Lódz, Congress Poland, and began his studies there.

He continued his studies in sculpture and architectural ornamentation at a number of European art academies. These included the School of Applied Art in Munich at the height of the Jugendstil movement, the neo-classical studio of Marius-Jean-Antonin Mercié at the Académie des Beaux-Arts, and the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, then a center of Art Nouveau, under symbolist and idealist artists Victor Rosseau and Constant Montald. Under the influence of Boris Schatz, the founder of the Bezalel Academy, Raban moved to the land of Israel in 1912 during the wave of immigration known as the Second Aliyah. He joined the faculty of the Bezalel school, and soon took on a central role there as a teacher of repoussé, painting, and sculpture.

He also directed the academy's Graphics Press and the Industrial Art Studio. By 1914, most of the works produced in the school's workshops were of his design. Raban is regarded as a leading member of the Bezalel school art style, in which artists portrayed both Biblical and Zionist themes in a style influenced by the European jugendstil (similar to Art Nouveau) and by traditional Persian and Syrian styles. Exemplars of this style are Rabban's illustrated editions of the of Book of Ruth, Song of Songs, Book of Job, Book of Esther, and the Passover Hagadah.

Like other European art nouveau artists of the period such as Alphonse Mucha Raban combined commercial commissions with uncommissioned paintings. Raban designed the decorative elements of such important Jerusalem buildings as the King David Hotel, the Jerusalem YMCA, and Bikkur-Cholim Hospital. He also designed a wide range of day-to-day objects, including playing cards (in the suit of leaves, the King is Ahasuerus, the Queen is Esther, and the Jack is Haman), commercial packaging for products such as Hanukkah candles and Jaffa oranges, bank notes, tourism posters, jewelry, and insignia for Zionist institutions.

Raban easily navigated a wealth of artistic sources and mediums, borrowing and combining ideas from East and West, fine arts and crafts from past and present. His works blended European neoclassicism, Symbolist art and Art Nouveau with oriental forms and techniques to form a distinctive visual lexicon. Versatile and productive, he lent this unique style to most artistic mediums, including the fine arts, illustration, sculpture, repousee, jewellery design, and ceramics. Raban also designed a wide range of Jewish objects, including Hanukkah menorahs, temple windows, and Torah arks. Temple Emanuel (Beaumont, Texas) has a notable set of six windows, each 16-feet high.

The windows were commissioned from Raban in 1922 by Rabbi Samuel Rosinger. Each window depicts an event in the life of one of the principal Hebrew prophets, Jeremiah, Elijah, Elisha, Ezekiel, Moses, and Isaiah. Raban collaborated with other artists to produce versions of his work as ceramic tiles, a number of which can still be sees on buildings in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, including the Bialik House. The 1925 Lederberg house, at the intersection of Rothschild Boulevard and Allenby Street features a series of large ceramic murals designed by Raban. The four murals show a Jewish pioneer sowing and harvesting, a shepherd, and Jerusalem with a verse from Jeremiah 31:4, Again I will rebuild thee and thous shalt be rebuilt.

When Rome destroyed the Second Temple in 70 C. Only one outer wall remained standing.

The Romans probably would have destroyed that wall as well, but it must have seemed too insignificant to them; it was not even part of the Temple itself, just an outer wall surrounding the Temple Mount. For the Jews, however, this remnant of what was the most sacred building in the Jewish world quickly became the holiest spot in Jewish life. Throughout the centuries Jews from throughout the world made the difficult pilgrimage to Palestine, and immediately headed for the Kotel ha-Ma'aravi (the Western Wall) to thank God. The prayers offered at the Kotel were so heartfelt that gentiles began calling the site the Wailing Wall.

" This undignified name never won a wide following among traditional Jews; the term "Wailing Wall is not used in Hebrew. The Western Wall was subjected to far worse than semantic indignities. During the more than one thousand years Jerusalem was under Muslim rule, the Arabs often used the Wall as a garbage dump, so as to humiliate the Jews who visited it. For nineteen years, from 1948 to 1967, the Kotel was under Jordanian rule.

Although the Jordanians had signed an armistice agreement in 1949 guaranteeing Jews the right to visit the Wall, not one Israeli Jew was ever permitted to do so. One of the first to reach the Kotel in the 1967 Six-Day War was Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan, who helped revive a traditional Jewish custom by inserting a written petition into its cracks. It was later revealed that Dayan's prayer was that a lasting peace descend upon the House of Israel. The custom of inserting written prayers into the Kotel's cracks is so widespread that some American-Jewish newspapers carry advertisements for services that insert such prayers on behalf of sick Jews. The mystical qualities associated with the Kotel are underscored in a popular Israeli song, a refrain of which runs: There are people with hearts of stone, and stones with hearts of people.

" A rabbi in Jerusalem once told me that the Hebrew expression "The walls have ears was originally said about the Western Wall. Unfortunately, even a symbol as unifying as the Kotel can become a source of controversy in Jewish life. Ultra-Orthodox Jews have long opposed organized women's prayer services at the Wall; prayer services they maintain, may only be conducted by males. On occasion they have violently dispersed such services, throwing chairs and other "missiles" at the praying women. Under intense public pressure however, the right of women to pray collectively at the Kotel is gradually being won.

In addition to the large crowds that come to pray at the Kotel on Friday evenings, it is also a common gathering place on all Jewish holidays, particularly on the fast of Tisha Be-Av, which commemorates the destruction of both Temples. Today the Wall is a national symbol, and the opening or closing ceremonies of many Jewish events, including secular ones, are conducted there Is it "the Western Wall" or "the Wailing Wall"?

Jews nowadays make a point of saying "Western"; non-Jews say both; and the question, which has hitherto seemed a semantic one tinged with religious and national overtones, has now become part of the wrangling over President Clinton's proposed Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement. In the words of the Israeli political and military analyst Ze'ev Schiff, writing in the Hebrew daily Ha'aretz: What is the length of the Western Wall? Is it confined to the wall facing the space traditionally used by Jews for prayer, which is only 58 meters, or does it include the entire western retaining wall of the Temple Mount? The Palestinians demand that any diplomatic settlement adhere to the shorter length, known as the Wailing Wall. " Israel insists on "the Western Wall... Whose length is 485 meters.

Let us try to shed some philological light on the matter. There is no doubt that the Hebrew term ha-kotel ha-ma'aravi or "Western Wall" is far older than Wailing Wall. Thus, for instance, in Shemot Rabba, a midrashic collection of exegeses on the book of Exodus from the seventh or eighth century C. We find the saying attributed to Rabbi Acha (himself a fourth-century scholar) that, even after the destruction of the Temple, the Shekhinah [God's presence in the world] never leaves the Western Wall.

There is some doubt, though, whether Rabbi Acha was actually referring to today's Western Wall rather than to the ruined west wall of the Temple building itself, since there is no mention by any similarly early source of the custom of praying or mourning at today's wall. Indeed, in the early centuries after the destruction of the Temple, Jews were prohibited by the Roman authorities from entering the city of Jerusalem at all, and the customary place for mourning the Temple was the Mount of Olives, which overlooks the Temple Mount from the east. A description of this rite is given by the fourth-century Church Father Jerome, who observed Jews on the Mount of Olives on the Ninth of Av, the day of mourning for the Temple, wailing and lamenting while they looked down on its ruins.

The earliest clear use of ha-kotel ha-ma'aravi in the sense of today's "Western Wall" is by the 11th-century Italian Hebrew poet Ahima'az ben Paltiel. This, too, though, may predate the actual use of the wall by Jews for prayer, since it is not until the 16th century that we hear of the wall being used for that purpose The English term "Wailing Wall" or its equivalent in other languages dates from much later.

In fact despite its hoary sound, "Wailing Wall" is a strictly 20th-century English usage introduced by the British after their conquest of Jerusalem from the Turks in 1917. In the 19th century, when European travelers first began visiting Palestine in sufficient numbers to notice the Jews there at all, the Western Wall was commonly referred to as "the Wailing Place, " as in the following passage from Samuel Manning's "Those Holy Fields" (1873): A little further along the western [retaining] wall we come to the Wailing-place of the Jews.... Here the Jews assemble every Friday to mourn over their fallen state.... Some press their lips against crevices in the masonry as though imploring an answer from some unseen presence within, others utter loud cries of anguish. The "Wailing-place" was a translation of El-Mabka, or "the Place of Weeping, " the traditional Arabic term for the wall.

Within a short time after the commencement of the British Mandate, however, "Wailing Wall" became the standard English term, nor did Jews have any compunctions about using it. Only after the Six-Day War in 1967 did it become de rigueur in Jewish circles to say "Western Wall"- a reflection of the feeling, first expressed by official Israeli usage and then spreading to the Diaspora, that, with the reunification of Jerusalem under Israeli sovereignty, there was no longer anything to wail about. Henceforward, the wall should be a place of celebration.

This happened so quickly that it is difficult to find a Jewish book written after 1967 in which the term "Wailing Wall" occurs. Gradually, the non-Jewish world began to fall in line, so that "Western Wall" predominates in contemporary non-Jewish usage too, though "Wailing Wall" can still be found there. Muslims, for their part, use neither term, "El-Mabka" having fallen out of favor in the 1920s with growing Arab-Jewish tensions over rights at the wall.

The Palestinians then began calling it "El-Burak, " after the name of Mohammed's horse that was supposedly tethered there on the prophet's legendary night ride to Jerusalem and heaven. But in Hebrew it has always been ha-kotel ha-ma'aravi, at least for the last thousand years.

Or rather, this is its full form, which Israelis rarely use in ordinary conversation. In Israel one generally hears no more than ha-kotel, "the Wall, " the subject being clear, since the everyday Hebrew word for "wall" is kir and kotel is used only in special idioms. Perhaps as part of his carefully prepared package of compromises, Mr. Clinton could prevail upon both sides to do the same and drop both "Wailing" and Western. The Wailing Wall or Western Wall is the remains of the great Jewish temple, which had stood for close to 500 years.

Herod began rebuilding and adding on to the temple in approximately 19 B. And the total work was not finished until fifty years later. The temple itself was destroyed by the Romans only a few years after its completion, circa 70 C. It is thought by Jews to be the most sacred of places, because the temple itself was thought to be the place where God resides on earth. Praying at the Wailing Wall signifies being in the presence of the Divine.

Jews from all countries, and as well as tourists of other religious backgrounds, come to pray at the wall, where it is said one immediately has the ear of god. Those who cannot pray at the wall can send prayers or ask for the Kaddish to be said for departed loved ones. Prayers sent in are placed into the cracks of the walls and are called tzetzels. There is usually a small charge for this service.

The name "Wailing Wall" is actually a Christian term. The Jews refer to the wall as the Western Wall or Kotel HaMaaravi. Though the Wailing Wall has been considered the holiest of places on earth for Jews, it has also been the source of grief and war. During the crusades, Jerusalem was held for a short time by European crusaders.

It belonged to Spain, then to Turkey. During Spanish occupation, Judaism was a punishable offense, because Catholics mistakenly attributed the death of Christ to the Jews.

When Jews were not being exiled from Jerusalem, or put to death, they were certainly not given access to the wall. In the 16th century, Jews regained access to the Wailing Wall to pray and assemble there. This permission was granted by the Arab Sultan, Selim, who is also credited with finding the first archaeological evidence that the wall existed, buried under refuse. Relative harmony in worshipping at the wall persisted until the 19th century.

Eventually, Arab leaders kept control, and forbid Jews to gather there. This was a source of much pain to the Jews, to be denied access to their central religious site. Struggle for use of the Wailing Wall continued through the 20th century, with bitterness among both religious groups. Islam holds some claim to the religious site, as does Judaism, because it is often believed that the prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven either near or at the Wailing Wall.

Further, Islam worships the same One God as the Jews, though the teachings of the Old Testament are interpreted and added to by the writings of the Prophet Muhammad. However, there is still much underlying bitterness regarding this place where the holiest of holies resides, which in part contributes to continued poor relationships between Arabic countries and Israel. While enmity remains, the Wailing Wall has also been the site of reconciliation between Jews and Catholics. Pope John Paul II was the first pope to pray at the wall, as well as in a synagogue where he apologized for centuries of Catholic persecution of Jews, referring to them as the Catholics' elder brothers.

Today the Wailing Wall can be visited at any time of the day, though visitors are thoroughly searched. Women of any religion, in respect for Judaic law, should wear modest clothing, and there are separate entrances for men and women, though they can regroup at the Wall. Only the bottom seven layers of the original stones of the Wailing Wall remain, but the both the Kotel tunnels and the sheer length of the wall impress visitors.

The excavated cornerstones are close to 50 tons (approximately 45t). Many non-Jews describe a feeling of the sacred when viewing the wall.

Whether viewed by the religious or non-religious, the Wailing Wall is an awesome structure, significantly rich in history both good and bad. The Jewish National Fund Hebrew:??? The JNF is a quasi-governmental, non-profit organization. By 2007, it owned 13% of the total land in Israel.

Since its inception, the JNF has planted over 240 million trees in Israel. It has also built 180 dams and reservoirs, developed 250,000 acres (1,000 km) of land and established more than 1,000 parks. Israel officially the State of Israel Hebrew:???????? Is a parliamentary democracy in the Middle East, on the south-eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Lebanon in the north, Syria in the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank in the east, Egypt and the Gaza Strip on the southwest, and the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea to the south, and it contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area.

In its Basic Laws Israel defines itself as a Jewish and Democratic State; it is the world's only Jewish-majority state. On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly recommended the adoption and implementation of the partition plan of Mandatory Palestine. On 14 May 1948, David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization and president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, " a state independent upon the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine, 15 May 1948. Neighboring Arab armies invaded Palestine on the next day and fought the Israeli forces. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied the West Bank, Sinai Peninsula (between 1967 and 1982), Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights.

It annexed portions of these territories, including East Jerusalem, but the border with the West Bank is disputed. Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan, but efforts to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict have so far not resulted in peace. Israel's financial center is Tel Aviv, while Jerusalem is the country's most populous city and its capital (although not recognized internationally as such). The population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2013 to be 8,002,300 people, of whom 6,030,100 are Jewish. Arabs form the country's second-largest ethnic group with 1,653,900 people (including Druze and Bedouins).

The great majority of Israeli Arabs are settled-Muslims, with smaller but significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins and Christians. Other minorities include various ethnic and ethno-religious denominations such as Druze, Maronites, Samaritans, Black Hebrew Israelites, Armenians, Circassians and others.

Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The Prime Minister serves as head of government and the Knesset serves as Israel's unicameral legislative body.

Israel has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. It is a developed country, an OECD member, and its economy, based on the nominal gross domestic product, was the 43rd-largest in the world in 2012. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia Yom Ha'atzmaut Hebrew:??? "Independence Day" is the national day of Israel, commemorating the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. It is celebrated on 5th of Iyar according to the Hebrew calendar.

Yom Ha'atzmaut is preceded by Yom Hazikaron, the Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day Yom Ha'atzmaut centres around the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel by The Jewish Leadership led by future Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, on 14 May 1948. This was declared eight (8) hours before the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, which was due to finish on 15 May 1948. The operative paragraph of the Declaration of the Establishment of State of Israel of 14 May 1948 expresses the declaration to be by virtue of our natural and historic right and on the strength of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly.

The operative paragraph concludes with the words of Ben-Gurion, where he thereby declares the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. The new state was quickly recognised by the Soviet Union, the United States de facto, and many other countries, but not by the surrounding Arab states, which marched with their troops into the area of the former British Mandate. Most of the official events take place in Israel's capital city Jerusalem, and are broadcast live on television. Yom Ha'atzmaut eveAn official ceremony is held every year on Mount Herzl, Jerusalem on the evening of Yom Ha'atzmaut.

The ceremony includes a speech by the speaker of the Knesset (the Israeli Parliament), artistic performances, a Flag of Israel, forming elaborate structures (such as a Menorah, Magen David) and the ceremonial lighting of twelve torches, one for each of the Tribes of Israel. Every year a dozen Israeli citizens, who made a significant social contribution in a selected area, are invited to light the torches. Many cities hold outdoor performances in cities' squares featuring leading Israeli singers and fireworks displays. Streets around the squares are closed to cars, allowing people to sing and dance in the streets.

Yom Ha'atzmaut day Reception of the President of Israel for honouring excellence in 120 IDF soldiers. The event takes place in the President's official residence in Jerusalem. International Bible Contest in Jerusalem Israel Prize ceremony in Jerusalem Israel Defense Forces opens some of its bases to the public. Balconies are decorated with Israeli flags, and small flags are attached to car windows. Some leave the flags hoisted until after Yom Yerushalayim.

Israeli Television channels air the official events live, and classic cult Israeli movies and skits are shown. "Day of Independence" is the national day of Israel, commemorating the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. It is celebrated either on the 5th of Iyar, according to the Hebrew calendar, or on one of the preceding or following days, depending on which day of the week this date falls on. Yom Hazikaron, the Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day is followed by Independence Day. The mood outside of Ben-Gurion's home just prior to the declaration was joyous: The Jews of Palestine...

Were dancing because they were about to realize what was one of the most remarkable and inspiring achievements in human history: A people which had been exiled from its homeland two thousand years before, which had endured countless pogroms, expulsions, and persecutions, but which had refused to relinquish its identity-which had, on the contrary, substantially strengthened that identity; a people which only a few years before had been the victim of mankind's largest single act of mass murder, killing a third of the world's Jews, that people was returning home as sovereign citizens in their own independent state. [1] Independence was declared eight hours before the end of the British Mandate of Palestine, which was due to finish on 15 May 1948.

Declaration of the State of Israel The operative paragraph of the Declaration of the Establishment of State of Israel of 14 May 1948[2] expresses the declaration to be by virtue of our natural and historic right and on the strength of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly. The new state was quickly recognised by the United States de facto, the Soviet Union, [3] and many other countries, but not by the surrounding Arab states, which marched with their troops into the area of the former British Mandate. Events[edit] Independence Day celebrations in Tel Aviv's Rabin Square, 2008 Israeli Air Force Independence Day flypast, 2011 Official events[edit] Most of the official events take place in Jerusalem, the seat of Israel's government, and are broadcast live on Israeli television.

Independence Day eve[edit] An official ceremony is held every year on Mount Herzl, Jerusalem on the evening of Independence Day. The ceremony includes a speech by the speaker of the Knesset (the Israeli Parliament), artistic performances, a Flag of Israel, forming elaborate structures (such as a Menorah, Magen David) and the ceremonial lighting of twelve torches, one for each of theTribes of Israel. Many cities hold outdoor performances in cities' squares featuring leading Israeli singers and fireworksdisplays. Independence Day[edit] International Bible Contest, 1985 Visitors around an IDF Caterpillar D9 at the Israel Defense Forcesexhibition at Yad La-Shiryon, Independence Day 2012.

Reception of the President of Israel for honouring excellence in 120 IDF soldiers. Their decision that it be recited (without a blessing) gave rise to a bitter public dispute, with Agudath Israel rejecting the notion of imbuing the day with any religious significance whatsoever, and religious Zionists believing the blessing should be obligatory. [4] The Rabbinate also ruled that they were unable to sanction instrumental music and dances on this day which occurs during the sephirah period. [5] The recitation of the blessing over Hallel was introduced in 1973 by Israeli Chief Rabbi Shlomo Goren.

The innovation was strongly denounced by his Sephardic counterpart, Rabbi Ovadia Yosef[6] and by Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, leader ofModern Orthodox Judaism in America. [7] The Religious Zionist movement created a liturgy for the holiday which sometimes includes the recitation of some psalms and the reading of the haftarah of Isaiah 10:32-12:6, which is also read on the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora, on the holiday morning.

Other changes to the daily prayers include reciting Hallel, saying the expanded Pesukei D'Zimrah of Shabbat (the same practice that is observed almost universally on Hoshanah Rabbah), and/or blowing the Shofar. RabbiJoseph Soloveitchik questioned the Halachic imperative in canonising these changes[8] (it is not clear what his personal practice was regarding the recital of Hallel). In any case, the majority of his students recite Hallel without the blessings. [9] A number of authorities have promoted the inclusion of a version of Al Hanisim for the miracles...

[10] Most Haredim make no changes in their daily prayers. People affiliated to the Edah HaChareidis mourn the establishment of Israel on Independence Day, claiming that the establishment of a Jewish state before the coming of the Messiah is a sin and heresy. Some even fast on this day and recite prayers for fast days. [11] The Conservative Movement read the Torah portion of Deuteronomy 7:12-8:18, and include a version of Al Hanisim. [12]The Reform Movement suggests the inclusion of Ya'aleh V'yavo in the Amidah prayer.

Timing[edit] Independence Day is celebrated on the 5th day of Iyar? In the Hebrew calendar, the anniversary of the day on which Israeli independence was proclaimed, when David Ben-Gurion publicly read the Israeli Declaration of Independence.

The corresponding Gregorian date was 14 May 1948. If the 5th of Iyar falls on a Friday or Saturday, the celebrations are moved up to the preceding Thursday.

This rule has been effective since 1951. If the 5th of Iyar is on a Monday, the festival is postponed to Tuesday. This rule has been effective since 2004, in order to avoid potential violation of Sabbath laws by preparing forYom Hazikaron or Independence Day on a Shabbat. Gregorian dates for Independence Day: 16 April 2013 (Tuesday, postponed one day to Iyar 6) 6 May 2014 (Tuesday, postponed one day to Iyar 6) 23 April 2015 (Thursday, advanced one day to Iyar 4) 12 May 2016 (Thursday, advanced one day to Iyar 4) 2 May 2017 (Tuesday, postponed one day to Iyar 6) Palestinian reactions and The Nakba[edit] While some Palestinian citizens of Israel celebrate Yom Ha'atzmaut, others regard it as a tragic day in their history referred to as al-Nakba ("the catastrophe")[13][14] "Your independence is our Nakba" is a slogan constantly in use. "Jewish independence is our day of mourning" was chanted by thousands of demonstrating Arab Israelis.

Arab-Israeli MK Taleb El Sana proclaimed to Nakba protesters that the Nakba is equivalent to the destruction of the First and Second Temples. [15] On 23 March 2011, the Knesset approved, by a vote of 37 to 25, [16] a change to the budget, giving the Israeli Finance Minister the discretion to reduce government funding to any non-governmental organization (NGO) that organizes Nakba commemoration events. [17][18] After months of legislative limbo due to numerous appeals filed by multiple organizations e. Adalah, and the Association for Civil Rights in Israel, as well as several Jewish and Arab citizens of Israel[19] the Supreme Court of Israel rejected the appeals, and upheld the Nakba Law, on January 5, 2012. President Dorit Beinisch and Justices Eliezer Rivlin and Miriam Naor concluded: The declarative level of the law does indeed raise difficult and complex questions. However, from the outset, the constitutionality of the law depends largely upon the interpretation given to the law's directives.

[20][21] In specific, the law enables the state to fine local communities and other state-funded groups for holding events that mark what the Arab community calls the Nakba. Fines, deducted from a group's operating budget, could equal up to three times the event's sponsorship cost; repeat violations would double the fines. [21] Independence Day Independence Day? Independence Day marks Israel's Declaration of Independence with the end of the British Mandate. It is the only full holiday in the calendar decreed by law without a tradition of hundreds or thousands of years.

Independence Day is on the fifth day of the Jewish month of Iyar (from the end of April till mid-May), the day in which David Ben-Gurion, the state's first prime minister, declared the country's independence in 1948. It was declared a full holiday in a law enacted in the Knesset in 1949. Over the years various traditions evolved to celebrate the holiday, and it is now marked by family picnics in scenic spots all over the country. Independence Day celebrations begin on the evening of the fifth of Iyar with the end of Yom Hazikaron, the Remembrance Day for the Fallen of Israel's Wars, with special ceremonies marking the transition from mourning to celebration. The main ceremony is held in Har (Mount) Herzl in Jerusalem.

During Independence Day, the World Bible Quiz is held in Jerusalem and the prestigious Israel Prizes are distributed to the year's winners in a special ceremony. Most businesses are closed on Independence Day, but cafes restaurants and other places of entertainment are open because it is not a religious holiday. Flags - Many Israelis fly flags from their houses, porches or cars, often with colorful decorations. Entertainment Stages - Because of Independence Day's profoundly secular nature, a tradition of evolved of free entertainment by performers, dancers and comics on stages set up in the center of cities and other communities on the eve of Independence Day.

The shows are often accompanied by fireworks. The main streets of towns and cities are usually packed with people. Barbeque - Independence Day has become Israel's unofficial barbeque holiday with families picnicking huge amounts of meat in every green spot they can find in the country. Israeli Movies - Local channels devote all of their programming to the holiday and often screen old Israeli movies which have become cult items.

Prayer - Even though this is a national and not a religious holidayt, religious Zionists tend to say a special prayer composed by the chief rabbinate. This prayer sometimes includes blowing a shofar (a ram's horn). Back To Top Important Information?

Most sites in the countryside are usually packed on Independence Day, also because this is the only holiday in which both religious and secular Israeli Jews can travel. Since so many Israelis use this day to visits these sites, tourists might wish to stay inside the cities, the main streets of which are also full of people. Israeli Independence Day is always immediately preceded by Yom Hazikaron - Memorial Day for the Fallen Israeli Soldiers. The message of linking these two days is clear: Israelis owe their independence -the very existence of the state - to the soldiers who sacrificed their lives for it. Usually, the presidentof Israel will deliver a speech of congratulations while soldiers representing all the various branches and units of the Israel Defense Forces parade with their flags. In recent decades this smaller-scale ceremony has replaced a much larger daytime parade which was the main event during the 1950s and'60s. The evening parade is followed by a torch lighting (hadlakat masuot) ceremony, symbolically marking the country's achievements in all spheres of life. Other than the official ceremonies, Israelis celebrate Yom Ha'atzmaut in a variety of ways. In the major cities such asJerusalem and Tel Aviv, nighttime festivities are focused on the main streets where crowds gather to watch public shows offered for free by the municipalities and the government. In rural communities, many people spend the night dancing Israeli folk dances or singing Israeli songs.

During the daytime thousands of Israeli families go out on hikes and picnics. Many army bases are also opened for civilians to visit to display the achievements of the Israeli Defense Forces. Yom Ha'atzmaut is concluded with the ceremony of granting the "Israel Prize" recognizing individual Israelis for their unique contribution to the country's culture, science, arts, and the humanities. The religious character of Yom Ha'atzmaut is still in the process of formation, and is subject to debate.

The Chief Rabbinate of the State has decided that this day should be marked with a recitation of Hallel (Psalms of Praise), similar to other joyous Jewish holidays, and with the reading of a special haftarah (prophetic portion). Most ultra-Orthodox Jews, in Israel and abroad, have not accepted this ruling, and some Orthodox Jews chant the Hallel psalms without the blessing which precedes it. Israeli Air Force jets fly over Israel on Yom Ha'atzmaut2011 On the other hand, HaKibbutz HaDati (Modern OrthodoxKibbutz Movement) initiated a version of the prayer Al HaNissim("Concerning the Miracles") to be added to the Amidah (the central prayer recited while standing) on Yom Ha'atzmaut, as it is onHanukkah and Purim.

This special addition to the liturgy of the day was not approved by the Chief Rabbinate but was adopted by the Masorti (Conservative) and the Progressive (Reform) congregations in Israel. Some rabbis argue that Yom Ha'atzmautshould be viewed in conjunction with Hanukkah and Purim, since all three commemorate a "miraculous" victory of the Jews over an enemy of superior military might.

It should be noted that most Israelis do not consider Yom Ha'atzmaut a religious holiday at all. Aside from Israel, most Jewish communities around the world have also incorporated Yom Ha'atzmaut into their calendars, though it has become customary from some to hold the public celebrations on the closest Sunday in order to attract more participation. In Israel it is a formal holiday; so almost everyone has the day off. For American Jews, celebrating Yom Ha'atzmaut has been a way to express solidarity with the State of Israel and to strengthen their alliance with it. In many communities, it is one of few occasions in which Jewish organizations andsynagogues of different ideologies and denominations cooperate in forming a common celebration.

In many North American congregations, the joint public celebration often is augmented by a religious service. In some cases, this would occur on the Shabbat closest to Yom Ha'atzmaut and would consist of additional readings added to the service and, usually, the singing of Hatikvah (the Israeli national anthem). For Jews around the world, joining with Israelis celebrating Yom Ha-Atzmaut has become a concrete link in the Jewish connection to the land of Israel.

This item is in the category "Collectibles\Religion & Spirituality\Judaism\Other Judaism Collectibles". The seller is "levant-fair" and is located in this country: IL. This item can be shipped worldwide.
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  2. Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel
  3. Religion: Judaism

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